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History of the Kenya Police service

The Kenya Police has its small beginnings in the period between 1887 – 1902, tracing its foundation on the Imperial British East Africa (I.B.E.A.) Company, and a businessman Sir William McKinnon, who in the interest of his business found it necessary to provide some form of protection (security) for his stores along the coastline of Kenya.
It is from this origin that the concept of constituting a real police service was formed in Mombasa. Generally, police activities centered on protection of the business of the I.B.E.A. Company where the strength was mainly of Indian origin with a skeleton staff of some Africans otherwise referred to as ‘Askaris”. During those early stages of the small police force, its duties were negligible.


The construction of the Kenya - Uganda Railway provided for the growth of this infant force inland from our coastline, and by 1902 there existed police service units at Mombasa, Nairobi and Kisumu for the purpose of safeguarding the railways property and materials as well as the manpower engaged in constructing the railway. In essence, peace, law and order had to be maintained despite the fact that the personnel employed then had little training. The laws in force were from India including the Indian Criminal Procedure Code, the Indian Evidence Act and Police Ordinance.
It is notable that up to 1907, the Kenya Police was organized along military lines and the training was military in nature. In 1906, the Kenya Police was legally constituted by a Police Ordinance.

In 1926, the Criminal Intelligence Unit was established with the sole responsibility of collecting, tabulating and recording the history and data of criminals, undesirable and suspicious persons.
 
Special sections like fingerprint bureau and C.I.D. were created starting with a skeleton staff composed of former police officers from Britain and South Africa. This was the foundation of today’s Kenya Police Force.
 
In the same year, the Railway Police Unit was also established to deal specifically with prevention and detection of offences in the railways from the coast to Kisumu, including Kilindini Harbour and branch lines.
As the years progressed, the scope of police activities increased and it was called upon to deal with traffic problems such as accidents and parking. The police were also called upon to deal with cattle rustling in the countryside.
 
As a preparation for the Second World War, police recruits were deployed in Northern Frontier Districts to counter the threat from Italian Somali Land and Ethiopia. In addition to fighting alongside regular soldiers, the Kenya Police acted as guides, interpreters and carried out reconnaissance missions in the enemies’ territories.
In 1946, the Police service was placed under the office of the Attorney General. The police officers’ powers were increased, and to cope with the new development, a new Police Training Depot was opened in Maseno.
In 1948, several important developments were made in the Force. The Kenya Police Reserve was formed as an auxiliary of the Force. This Unit used armored cars and was deployed in trouble spots. To improve the effectiveness of crime control, a dog section was also introduced in 1948 and the General Service Unit established and deployed in troubled areas in emergency situations.
 
In 1949, the Police Air wing was formed to carry out duties as communication and evacuation of sick persons to hospitals and was made part of the permanent Police service in January 1953.
After the declaration of the state of emergency in 1952, there was an immediate increase in personnel to cope with the situation and in response to the Mau Mau insurgency. In 1953, a commission was formed to review the organization, administration and expansion of the Force.
 
In 1957, the Police Headquarters building was opened and in 1958 the Force was integrated within the Ministry of Defense. In the period prior to independence, the Kenya Police was greatly involved in the maintenance of law and order during political meetings and at the height of the independence election period.
After Kenya gained her independence from Britain on 12th December 1963, there was a need to make some drastic changes in the Administration of the Force. This led to the replacement of the expatriate officers in the senior ranks by Africans. Since then, the Force has realized tremendous achievements in various fields of operation.
 
Among them, due to the increase in criminal activities and in line with the Police resolve to effectively deal with security threats and to bring down crime to minimal levels, various specialized units have been formed. They include the Anti-Stock Theft Unit, Anti-Motor Vehicle Theft Unit, Tourism Police Unit, The Anti-Corruption Police Unit, Presidential Escort Unit, and the Anti-Terrorism Police


This Formations, Units and Components are established to support the functions of the Service.

The Kenya Police Service is comprised of the following Formations, Units and Components.
(a) Traffic Laws Enforcement Unit
(b) Tourist Police Unit
(c) Railway Police Unit
(d) Presidential Escort Unit
(e) Marine Police Unit
(f) Kenya Airports Police Unit.
(g) General Service Unit
(h) Diplomatic Police Unit
(i) Kenya Police Dog Unit
(j) Anti-Stock Theft Unit
(k) Kenya Police Airwing
(l) Kenya Police College
(m) Kenya Police Staff Training College

(a) Anti-Stock Theft Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
i.    Anti-stock theft operations
ii.    Stock –theft investigations.
iii.    Preventive work on stock-theft.
iv.    Crowd Control by use of Horses

(b) Tourist Police Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
i.    Protection of tourist‘s life and property
ii.    Provide security and safety to tourists
iii.    Handle and receive inquiries, claims and complaints by tourists
iv.    Investigate tourists related crimes and prosecute offenders
v.    Patrol beaches, hotels and tourist circuits street/roads used by tourists with a view of averting attacks on them
vi.    Provide escorts to tourists
vii.    Protect tourist from harassment by beach operators, parking boys and hawkers.
viii.    To offer general advice and guidance to tourists
ix.    Assist tourists during cultural festivals.

(c) Railway Police Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
i.    Prevention and detection of crimes
ii.    Inquire into offences against property or person conveyed over Railways Corporation throughout their areas of operation.
iii.     Investigation of claims complaints or irregularities in connection with the conveyance of goods and passengers including inquiries regarding missing goods.
iv.    Safe guarding Railways corporation property on stations, platforms trains in goods sheds workshops and goods on transit.
v.    Inquiries into accidents on railways.
vi.    Escort duties in connection with transit of goods.

(d) Presidential Escort Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
i.    To provide security and protection to His Excellency the President.
ii.    To provide security to the First Family.
iii.    Provide security to the retired Presidents.
iv.    Provide security to His Excellency the Deputy President.
v.    Provide security to visiting Heads of State and Governments.
vi.    Provide Security to any other V.I.P. as may be directed by the Inspector-General
(e) Marine Police Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Gathering and assessing information with respect to security threats and exchanging such information with appropriate Contracting Government;
II.    Requiring the maintenance of communication protocols for Ships and Port facilities;
III.    Preventing unauthorized access to Ships, Port facilities and their restricted areas;
IV.    Preventing the introduction of unauthorized weapons, incendiary devices or explosives to ships or port facilities;
V.    Providing means for raising the alarm in reaction to security threats or security incidents;
VI.    Requiring Ship and Port facility security plans based upon security assessments; and
VII.   Requiring training drills and exercises to ensure familiarity with security plans and procedures.

(f)  Kenya Airports Police Unit.
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Preventing and detecting crimes, inquiries into offences against property and persons within the three airports.
II.    Investigating claims, complaints and irregularities in conveyance of goods and passengers, lost and found property and missing goods within the airports;
III.    Safeguarding Airlines and private aircrafts parked within the apron area of the airports;
IV.    Maintaining law and order, crowd control and undertaking security duties in accordance with the recommended and established standards of civil aviation security;
V.    Checking passengers and luggage before boarding or loading onto aircrafts;
VI.    Controlling all entry points into the restricted areas;
VII.    Escorting valuables, explosives, arms and ammunition, wanted and extradited persons;
VIII.    Investigating accidents within airports;
IX.    Guarding and protecting vital installations within airports.
X.    VIP security and coverage within the airports.

(g) Dog Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Care and maintenance of police dogs
II.    Procuring and breeding police dog.
III.    Training of police dogs and dog handlers.
IV.     Deploying officers and police dogs for crime detection and prevention

(h) General Service Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Providing security to his Excellency the President, state houses / lodges.
II.    Providing security for selected foreign Airlines.
III.    Providing security to vital installations and strategic points.
IV.     Controlling rioters’ mobs and civil disturbance.
V.    Carrying out anti-poaching operations and escort duties.
VI.     Containing banditry and cattle rustling.
VII.    Countering terrorism activities and insurgencies.


(i)  Diplomatic Police Unit
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Providing specialized security for Diplomats
II.    Liaising with Diplomatic missions on security matters
III.    Coordinating all rapid responses
IV.     Providing static and mobile security for Diplomatic missions
V.    Foot and mobile security patrols
VI.     Traffic control/Accidents Investigation.
VII.    Static guards

(j)  Kenya Police Airwing
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Providing air support to the Service; including air supply and recce (tact, night and visual)
II.    General government communication flight facilities and carriage of V.I.Ps.
III.    Transport air support for the Service, government ministries and other authorized agencies.
IV.     Casualty evacuation

(k) Kenya Police Traffic department
The Unit is established to support the following functions of the Kenya Police Service in accordance with Section 24 of the National Police Service Act, 2011.
I.    Ensuring of free flow of traffic
II.    Prevention of Road Accidents
III.    Investigation of Accidents
IV.     Enforcement of all Laws, Rules and Regulations with which the department is charged.
V.    Initiate road safety sensitization to the members of the public.


Training Institutions under Kenya Police

(a) Kenya Police Driving School

Mandate
To train police drivers to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity.
Functions
(i). Offer basic driving course for Kenya Police Service drivers
(ii). Training and testing for upgrading of drivers currently in Service.
(iii). Training of drivers on minor mechanical parts of the vehicle.
(iv). Continuous monitoring & evaluation of competency of KPS drivers.
(v). Form a driving research Section in relation to road accident within the police.

(b) Kenya Police Signal School

Mandate
To train Service Signalers and operation communication skills.
Functions
(i). Offer basic Signals course for Kenya Police Service signalers
(ii). Training and testing for upgrading of signalers in Service.
(iii). Continuous monitoring & evaluation of competency of Kenya Police Service signalers.


(c) Kenya Police Staff College Loresho

Mandate
To train staff to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to respect human right and dignity as provided for under Article 244 (d) of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010.
Functions:
1.    To enhance the capacity of police officers in all field of policing.
2.    To research on policing techniques.
3.    To initiate the development and evaluation of a training curriculum.
4.    To incorporate all contemporary technologies in policing
5.    Provide senior officers leadership and command training.
6.    To set senior staff in-service trainees examinations.
7.    To undertake research on policing matters
8.    To run rehabilitation programmes for police officers

(d) Kenya Police Training College Kiganjo

Mandate
The College shall train staff to the highest possible standards of competence and integrity and to respect human right and dignity as provided for under Article 244 (d) of the Constitution of Kenya, 2010.
Functions:
1.    Training of Recruits
2.    Training of Police officers attending promotional courses
3.    Training of Police officers attending performance enhancement courses
4.    Follow -up programs (post training evaluation)
5.    Setting and marking of Gazetted Officers Examinations
6.    Setting and marking of Police Law Examination
7.    Setting and marking of Service English Literacy Examination
8.    Development of training curriculum
9.    Evaluation of training programmes and syllabi.
10.    To offer police science programs in collaboration with institutions of higher learning;
11.    To run rehabilitation programmes for police officers
12.    To establish, manage and utilize the existing satellite training centres in the counties for use by the Service

The following training institutions are under KPC –Kiganjo
• Railway Training Centre-Makindu
• Traffic Training School- Ngong
• All regional training

(e) GSU Training School

Mandate
To train staff to the highest possible standard of competency and integrity and to respect human rights and fundamental freedoms and dignity.
Functions:
(i). To offer basic training to GSU recruits.
(ii). To offer promotional courses to GSU officers.
(iii). To review GSU training curriculum.
(iv). To offer capacity building to GSU personnel.
(v). To be a research centre for emerging crimes.
(vi). To be a liaison centre with other training institutions.
(vii). To offer police science programs in collaboration with institutions of higher learning;
(viii). To run rehabilitation programmes for police officers
(ix). To establish, manage and utilise the existing satellite training centres in the counties for use by the Service

(f) ASTU Training School- Gilgil

Mandate
To Train Police Officers to the Highest Standard of Professionalism, Competency and Intergrity.
Functions
(i). To train police officers attending promotional courses
(ii). Training police officers undergoing performance enhancement courses
(iii). Development of training curriculum.
(iv). Evaluate training programmes and syllabi.
(v). Enhancing capacity of police officers in all fields of specialized training

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